High-frequency trading simulation using Azure Stream Analytics

Statistical arbitrage at high frequencies is actively used in all liquid securities, including equities, bonds, futures, foreign exchange, etc. The market only needs to hiccup in the wrong direction and the trade is stopped-out. Major speed advantage by putting servers right next to the exchanges' servers, uses sophisticated technological tools & computer algorithms to rapidly trade securities. The ability to receive market-related information first, and then act upon that information before competitors, is the key tenant of the competitive advantage sought by HFT firms. Although in many cases a human dealer is still needed especially for orders that are non-conventional, many liquidity providers in the capital market structure are computerized algorithms that are looking to exploit opportunities and provide liquidity. If your definition of OTC is that of different proprietary bank platform, of course there is edge as there is always one provider that is out on the others. And the usage of low latency connections is the way to do just that. Get in touch, every other ‘t’ would indicate a ‘do nothing’ signal. Trades can be made quickly over your computer, allowing retail traders to enter the market, while real-time streaming prices have led to greater transparency, and the distinction between dealers and their most sophisticated customers has been minimized.

Low latency network connections are optimized to process a high volume of data with the lowest delay between the server sending the data and the exchange receiving the data. With a liquid currency pair, you can assume that the slippage during normal periods will be the difference between the bid price and the offer price. With the internet and automated trading, each firm aims to execute a trade more quickly than others in order to take advantage of trading strategies. The remainder of the order will be traded at a different time.

– liquidity is what makes HFT one of the best; however, sometimes they might withdraw from the markets very fast, which results in a liquidity hole. High-frequency trading became commonplace in the markets following the introduction of incentives offered by exchanges for institutions to add liquidity to the markets. During my studies, I was doing a stint at Salomon Brothers in the equity derivatives team in Frankfurt, Germany. If 100-150ms latency kills your strategy then you're probably doing toxic flow and we'd rather not get involved. Does this come mainly from the fact that HFT computers can see both some of the order flow and institutional flash orders? Once upon a time in the financial world it was all about getting the right 'man' to do the trading. These algorithms would detect a trade and attempt to transact the same trade before the order was filled at another electronic exchange.

You also set stop-loss and take-profit limits. High frequency trading systems are very emotionally-fueled ventures and attract those looking for a massive adrenaline rush. HFT firms aspire to achieve profitability through rapidly capitalising on small, periodic pricing inefficiencies. The risk reward ratios are usually in the negative, a serious red flag in my books. HFT has a potential sharp ratio (a measure of risk and reward) thousands of times higher than traditional buy-and-hold strategies. “Current systems learn overnight on the day’s trading day, out of hours, and sometimes don’t even adjust the system until a few days later,” she says. Regulations and restrictions[edit], then cry about it. Then number 2 has a chance.

But how good do you understand HFT? If you answered negatively to these questions, you are participating in risky behavior. Banks have also taken advantage of algorithms that are programmed to update prices of currency pairs on electronic trading platforms. 5, so it is a good baseline for you to learn how to code this type of algorithm.

  • Programs are designed to be able to act upon small movements in currency prices, the sort of movement that would make mere pennies at a small scale but could deliver bigger returns when the trades are numbered in the millions.
  • This involves using enterprise grade servers, switching, and routing equipment between the server and the public internet like the equipment we use in our New York City data center.
  • There is also the human element that people like in the finance world.

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There are some downsides of algorithmic trading that could threaten the stability and liquidity of the forex market. DMA provides a trader the ability to enter market orders directly into the exchange's order book for execution. Intraday, however, proportion of HFT may vary from 0% to 100% of short-term trading volume. “Can you retrain your model overnight to find all the parameters and then use it with live market data the next day, for example? In forex markets, currency pairs are traded in varying volumes according to quoted prices. But not all is bad with the HFT industry. Sounds familiar?


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Market makers that stand ready to buy and sell stocks listed on an exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange, are called "third market makers". Now, you may be forgiven for thinking that it is all about getting the right machine. If you’re thinking about taking on a high frequency trading system or have already been using this method of trading, do yourself a big favor and read this article. The rapid-fire computer-based HFT developed gradually since 1983 after NASDAQ introduced a purely electronic form of trading. Don’t be shy to share your thoughts in our comments section below! Quant companies have armies of super computers dealing with processing market orders. How can we trade it?

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These processes have been made more efficient by algorithms, typically resulting in lower transaction costs. I was just curiousI bought it from him and it should work like this ( look at another videos from his channel) : The following are some of the most well-known algos. As you can see, by calling @conn.

The following guide explores how high frequency trading (HFT) has impacted FX trading. Examples of these features include the age of an order[53] or the sizes of displayed orders. Firms such as Citadel Securities LLC, which quadrupled its currency trading volume after the Brexit vote, explain that they’re simply acting as counterparties to ensure that trade execution stays efficient and that they’re not using complex computer programs to manipulate prices. This is the definition of losing your cool and trading emotionally, I see it all the time.

What Is Algorithmic Trading?

Since all quote and volume information is public, such strategies are fully compliant with all the applicable laws. The retail trader vaporizes that account on average in three months. What is the threshold where boredom kicks in and you start forcing trades just to make something happen? High frequency trading is one of the most demanding of all the trading styles. Speed is a major limitation, especially if the system is supposed to learn during market hours, adds de Chazournes. It also decreases the bid-ask spread that previously would have been too large. Technical analysis looks at how historical exchange rates can impact future exchange rates.

The emphasis is placed on words that may mean something for the overall future monetary policy, and the outcome is a terrible move in the Forex markets. The vast majority of global marketplaces exist in an electronic form, thus the future expansion of HFT strategies in such markets is likely in the coming years. You overtrade and start to chase the market to recover your losses. High frequency trading can go pear-shaped fast, it’s frightening. As a sample, here are the results of running the program over the M15 window for 164 operations:

But with Azure Stream Analytics compatibility level 1. A server located in close proximity to the Foreign Exchange can be one of the best ways to achieve low latency. In some marketplaces, HFT is the dominant provider of market liquidity. As it has already been mentioned, it took more than 15 years for HFT to get authorized by the financial authorities. No need to take on the super scalpers unless you can afford the infrastructure and bank lines of credit to play their game. Nowadays, there is a vast pool of tools to build, test, and improve Trading System Automations:

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Tynes observes that for conventional (structured and quantitative) time series data, timeliness and consistency checks are usually manageable because traders can analyse the quality of data by backtesting and investigating on a long time series from the source. Outside of US equities, several notable spot foreign exchange (FX) trading platforms—including ParFX[118], EBS Market[119], and Thomson Reuters Matching[120]—have implemented their own "speed bumps" to curb or otherwise limit HFT activity. 3 and "it remains an open question whether algorithmic trading and algorithmic liquidity supply are equally beneficial in more turbulent or declining markets. "So, yes they want you to be a high frequency trader. If you’re interested, you can find the complete, runnable code on GitHub. A floor broker executes orders for their clients. they do not execute on their own accounts. Exploiting that is not a very well received strategy of course by the price providers. An auction brings together buyers and sellers and the process helps explore a range of values until a fair value is discovered. The best choice, in fact, is to rely on unpredictability.

In fact, this is the style of trading adopted by most retail traders in the market today. These conditions are thought to eliminate the process of true price discovery. The drawdown may go higher under very volatile market conditions. Algorithmic trading has been able to increase efficiency and reduce the costs of trading currencies, but it has also come with added risk. The margin of error allowed in this example is only twenty pips. In a nutshell: Backtesting (sometimes written “back-testing”) is the process of testing a particular (automated or not) system under the events of the past. Because of the weekend, we have to look back three days.

High-Frequency Trading, of course.

High-frequency Trading

Previous estimates reporting that HFT accounted for 60–73% of all US equity trading volume, with that number falling to approximately 50% in 2019 were highly inaccurate speculative guesses. We can even go so far as to say that these high-frequency traders are very similar to the market makers and specialists in other exchanges. 4 billion deal that saw it account for about one in every five trades conducted on the US equity market, and has recently been reported to be eyeing Investment Technology Group.

Execute various trading strategies in equities, futures, FX, options and commodities, providing two-sided liquidity on over two hundred market centers around the world. And finally, central bankers choose their language very carefully so as not to create violent turbulence on the financial markets. The main focus there was “latency arbitrage” in the Equity space. Your strategy could entail risking 1x on a trade for every 2x you are trying to make. When the forex markets are experiencing normal volatility, high frequency forex traders provide liquidity by consistently buying and selling currency pairs to capture the inefficiency available in the forex market.

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High frequency trading approaches also run the risk of getting caught up in re-quote errors when the market is experiencing increased volatility. However, traders can still compete with algos by knowing when to take trades. Interactive brokers, uSAA has been offering insurance and financial products for military personnel and families for over 80 years. Market fragility : This is of course very valuable, as it ensures that differential pricing gets eliminated fast and people receive fair prices across venues. This is a crucial aspect of constructing an ultra-low latency trading platform, as its use ensures that the market participant is receiving data ahead of non-DMA users.

Once extra risks are taken, losses can easily nullify any previous profits. Believe it or not, these algorithms gather news from thousands of sources, identify keywords, and figure probabilities in microseconds. It’s like an addiction to drugs. If your account falls below the $25k requirement, you are not be permitted to day trade until you deposit cash in the account to restore the account to the $25k minimum equity level. For people that are already active in the field, the courses should also give some food for thought on how to improve one’s setup. An academic study[38] found that, for large-cap stocks and in quiescent markets during periods of "generally rising stock prices", high-frequency trading lowers the cost of trading and increases the informativeness of quotes;[38]:

Cons of High Frequency Trading

Basically, the idea is similar to that of a casino: 2 (EBS, Reuters, Currenex, HotSpot, FXAll, FastMatch, Integral, ParFX, LMAX and CME). It can be extremely challenging to earn a profit when trading currency. What retail traders should do is to properly understand what moves markets, what the drivers in the Forex market are, and how profits can still be made in the face of all these adverse conditions. In addition, computers can be used to automatically trade currency. Routinely firms that skip on safety and don’t do things properly get carried out of the market. Ironically, when volumes fall exchanges lean on other sources of revenue such as selling data, but the higher cost of data has been one of the reasons why high-frequency trading volumes have dropped.

When a losing trade is finally closed, guess what usually comes next? The trader starts getting more serious and begins to focus greatly on actually earning money. A big mistake at a grand scale can be every bit as bad as a smart choice at scale.

Truly unique quantitative solutions for continuous probabilistic price prediction and model arbitrage leveraging state-of-the-art, high performance parallel computational methods. Using an order anticipation strategy, the HFT firm enters and exits the market before the other market participants can react, thereby capitalising on the subsequent up or down move in price. Many see high-frequency trading as unethical and an unfair advantage for large firms against smaller institutions and investors. If things go wrong, they will most likely go wrong fast and in size.

  • An algorithm is essentially a set of specific rules designed to complete a defined task.
  • Similar estimates apply to European equity markets, with total volume traded by HFT strategies nearing a value closer to 40%.
  • This can include economic conditions, politics, weather, shipping conditions, piracy, technology advances and more.
  • Yadix offers true ECN/STP trading with no dealing desk intervention and delivers institutional trading conditions including core spreads from 0.

What Are the Main Types of Algorithms Trading Strategies Used?

When markets become opaque or gap, they alter your risk management techniques making it more difficult to execute your strategy. If successful, the result is an immediate move in price due to a glut of orders being placed upon the market by the sudden influx of market participants. To make a negative risk/reward system work, you must amass an overwhelming amount of winning trades over losing trades.

Basically, HFT is an automated means of trading that is based on algorithms. I can’t predict what will happen over the next day or month, but I can surely tell you what will happen in the next ten seconds. UK-based traders used to looking at the gold market or FTSE 100 might not be used to the fast pace and the volatility of forex, the world’s largest and most liquid market, but anyone engaged in currency will appreciate this as part of its attraction as an investment. Historically the daily range of the Pound/Dollar is less than 200 pips which is why the 800 pip range that day caught the attention of market participants and shined the light on high frequency traders who helped generated a large fluctuation in prices. For that we need to look at the food-chain of price suppliers. Up to this point we’ve been assuming that high frequency trading strategies actually use a stop loss. A simple console program can be written to receive real-time quotes and push to Azure Event Hubs as a data source.

USD/JPY Weekly Price Forecast – US dollar falls against Japanese yen

Any opinions, news, research, analyses, prices, other information, or links to third-party sites are provided as general market commentary and do not constitute investment advice. Our unique no conflict of interest infrastructure, technologies and trading conditions are in place to suit profitable trading systems/strategies. This encourages the gambling mindset when the trader is no longer thinking probabilities, but trading purely from greed, boredom, desperation or overconfidence. Each one of your trades could set off a cascade of additional trades that makes entry into a currency pair difficult. High speeds characterize this algorithm, in addition to its high turnover rates and high order-to trade ratios that leverage the electronic trading tools. Even more so than Equities, FX is completely decentralized (and also unregulated!) After a week of ‘trading’, I’d almost doubled my money.

Low-latency strategies[edit]


Still, the move from pigeons might have added some speed but the real revolution in this regard came in the last decade or so. For currencies to function properly, they must be somewhat stable stores of value and be highly liquid. Slippage is a term that describes the change in the price of a security that occurs when you transact. The take-profit limit is the amount of pips that you’ll accumulate in your favor before cashing out. The complexity of these algorithms is continually increasing, refining their ability to make trading decisions based on pertinent information and enabling more accurate reactions to price and market changes. In retail Forex trading, there are two broad types of trading styles when reference is made to the frequency of trades made in the Forex market:

Principal of our HFT team is development of revolutionary technology, designed to automate market making and post-trade activities to accumulate large profits over times. Based on the supply and demand for a specific stock, the specialist was responsible for finding a fair market price. Using specialized algorithms, computer programs can be used to forecast the direction of a currency movement. This was met with a lot of controversy, as HFTs have been blamed for having an unfair advantage, cornering the markets, and to some extent causing instability. That’s not so much the case with lower frequency trading as a human could always intervene after the first one or two bad trades or even before the first one, depending on frequency. 2 allows you to lose half of your trades, but still make money in the long term. This is how a jump of a fraction of penny up or down could result in large returns for investors and, given the movement in the market when it comes to forex, that means that the right algorithm, with a fast enough connection can identify and react to many different opportunities in a single day, let alone a week or month.

Yes, that is correct.

It actually depends on your definition of HFT. What are the key risks involved in HFT today? The trader could integrate multiple bank or other liquidity providers and diversify their liquidity pool. But the decision isn’t as straightforward as it may appear. Clients can invest into this pool fund with a minimum required capital of US$30,000 = 30 share. To achieve a competitive advantage over other market participants in the arena of speed, HFT firms pursue "ultra-low latency" technologies. While a trade might earn a profit of just a few cents, when a large number of these trades are made, the profits can be substantial. So, the masters of the old school still do have a future and it revolves around interpreting market dynamics.

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Many HFT programs are installed in specialized data centres located near an exchange. When forex traders transact in the currency market they generally must pay the difference between where a market maker is willing to sell a currency pair, and where the market maker is willing to buy the currency pair. But how do we get back to the living room, and the manual trades above? Now, we can make predictions and generate buy/sell signals based on the model, with a 0. Trading forex through a regulated broker also gives a trader access to their knowledge and expertise about how high frequency trading may be affecting markets.

If the number of trades per day under normal conditions gets reduced by a factor because of the lack of trading inefficiencies, this reduced liquidity can sometimes generate price gaps, and the process can snowball, picking up speed, as liquidity declines. Some IT background also doesn’t hurt. Definitions, 9, 1999, at 1 (``Kane Letter'') (Feb. Subsequently, evolving technologies focused on internet connectivity, as well as information systems, has given the over-the-counter markets and exchanges the ability to facilitate large trading volumes faster. The last strategy, market participation algorithm, focuses on fraction of volume.

This intense in-and-out trading is the ‘excitement’ fresh new traders are looking for. In addition, Liquidity goes hand in hand with the Exchanges. How to earn passive income online, you can shop online, watch videos, answer surveys and surf the web. Transaction fees are negotiated to bare bones and the bid/ask price spread is much tighter than retail traders could ever find. The fund trades on relatively short-mid time frame that is up to 365 trading days depending on market volatility. Companies such as IBTRADE offer a consolidated liquidity solution for a price and execution feed from 10 of the world's largest banks and liquidity providers as a fully integrated, multi-bank feed with complete trading anonymity. Trading is not about percentage earned; it is about the reward to risk. And, computer dependent.

  • ” Indeed, he was able to obtain information quicker and more broadly based than others.
  • Like any trading, high-frequency trading also has its positive and negative side.
  • Therefore, the trading process can be automated.
  • 5% management fee and 50% performance fee on high water mark monthly Net Equity gain as service fee.
  • Currently, the majority of exchanges do not offer flash trading, or have discontinued it.

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Since the speed of execution is limited by the speed of light, many programmers and investors try to minimize the amount of time it takes for an order to be executed. The broker then provides a platform with real-time information about the market and executes your buy/sell orders. According to a study carried out by TABB Group, HFT trading in Europe grew from next to nothing in 2019 to around 40% of the market share of all equity trading by 2019. “We hear time and time again from our hedge fund clients that they prefer to fail fast when dealing with alternative data so as to not waste precious quant research time,” he says. It builds a linear model between the past 5 VOI values and the price change in the next 10 ticks. Even if you can tell which way the trades would go for a short period of time, it’s hard to act on it with a mouse/mobile interface. Binary options result in one of two outcomes:

Predictive Model For High-frequency Trading

A perfect example of this was the huge move in the GBP/USD following comments in October 2019 from new U. Panic sets in, leading to frantic attempts to recover losses, which lead to more losses and before long, a margin call from the broker. Meanwhile, other currency brokers are fighting back by using a trading platform called ParFX that was created to combat disruptive behaviour and create an environment where intelligence, rather than speed, was rewarded. As HFT strategies become more widely used, it can be more difficult to deploy them profitably. High frequency trading is still popular, despite its drawbacks. – increased Liquidity was the primary reason for HFT being introduced, and it accounts for almost 50% of orders and Liquidity in the most significant trading floors.

Today there is a whole industry of firms and hedge funds, whose activities are directly related to HFT trading. For readers unfamiliar with Forex trading, here’s the information that is provided by the data feed: If your plan was to purchase the USD/JPY at 100. A difference between HFT and retail trading will always exist. Online tutoring jobs, , for an all-around better research experience. Because of it, the actual amounts of money these algorithms move are tremendous. Find your trading edge pro, trying day trading sprouted numerous other strategies that I use now. The more hours clocked at work, the greater the financial rewards. A little more than half a time it takes to blink your eyes is a 250-millisecond interval.

High on Emotion
They’re programmed to spot even the slightest nuances in different texts.

Still, the behavior of this algorithm should be much faster than average manual day traders. Someone with an HFT or HFT-ish strategy on FX. This is called scalability.

Our High Frequency Trading Advantage

Clients can make withdrawal on profits gained on monthly basis with minimum withdrawal of at least US$3,000. Because algorithms used by HFT can generate trade signals to be executed without human intervention, the possibility of dangerous market fluctuations is thought to be amplified. After that I had stints at DRW and Transoptions. Generally, a high frequency trading system requires you to risk too much for the small gains. If/when AI’s will be able to replace humans in taking trading decisions, we can say that HFT changed.

Our HFT Strategies

History of Market Liquidity

Please make sure your browser supports JavaScript and cookies and that you are not blocking them from loading. For a high frequency trader, finding the path of least resistance in communication is the key to successful arbitrage. A must have:, if you already have web design skills you can upscale your skills by learning how to create WordPress sites and related solutions such as themes and plugins. While people have been trading currencies for thousands of years, modern technology has changed the way that many banks and individual investors do business. This is mostly provided by market makers. Article info, artefacts and family heirlooms also require restoration or facelift such as polishing. They're crucial components of HFT strategies and direct determinants of the ability to establish long-term profitability from operations. The platform, which was developed in conjunction with 14 of the world’s largest global banks, subjects trades to a randomised pause ranging from 20 to 80 milliseconds.

Why would you want to do that? Conversely, detractors claim that the trading practice undermines the concept of a fair marketplace and that it's "predatory. "– HFT aims at less than a pip, which is undeniably a small take profit target.

Thousands of trades are traded each and every second, and this is what makes the Forex market so unpredictable and full of fake moves. In particular, the rapid proliferation of information, as reflected in market prices, allows arbitrage opportunities to arise. Spending on computers and software in the financial industry increased to $26. After that, traders are monitoring the trading and setting the parameters of the strategies. When you design your strategy you would likely incorporate brokerage costs and slippage into your strategy. Investors are looking for an environment that provides a marketplace that is fair, liquid and stable. Striving to make profits by collecting some fraction of the difference between its offers to buy and to sell by proprietary trading strategies.

We filter out the null values if the previous tick doesn't exist, just in case.

Failing to use a stop loss is not smart trading; I can’t think of any real advantage of not using one.

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Stock markets are supposed to be fair and a level playing field, which HFT arguably disrupts since the technology can be used for abusive ultra-short-term strategies. These include events arbitrage, exploiting price movements caused by financial and general events; statistical arbitrage, which uses complex mathematical modeling to compute and take advantage of pricing inefficiencies between assets; and latency arbitrage, which exploits price variations between different markets due to system delays, and the difference in price can be caused by HFT market manipulations. The problem with this:

HFT firms characterize their business as "Market making" – a set of high-frequency trading strategies that involve placing a limit order to sell (or offer) or a buy limit order (or bid) in order to earn the bid-ask spread. While the high frequency trader is trying to recover from losses, every single stop-out makes the hole, four risk-factors deeper. So safety is paramount. If you look at the previous posts, we are talking 30 seconds or so. 53 billion in the last quarter of 2019, compared with an average of $1. Triangular arbitrage, as it is known in the forex market, is the process of converting one currency back into itself through multiple different currencies.


The R-factor is defined as how much money you stand to make over a specific time period in relation to the trade risk (R). Home, started out with hunting for online and has three. After finishing my studies in the US, I started working for Cooper Neff, which at the time was one of the leading players in the early days of high frequency trading. An anti-HFT firm called NANEX claimed that right after the Federal Reserve announced its newest decision, trades were registered in the Chicago futures market within two milliseconds. HFT trading is one of the most profitable and risk-free areas of trade, but at the same time it requires special knowledge and skills in this area and here you can not do without the initial starting capital.

A very pertinent question would be why one should be involved in the HFT industry after all if the returns are so small? For starters over very short time horizons, order flow can be modelled quite well. The answer is simple: You have more time to yourself to do the things that matter in life. In our case, we achieve this low-latency by connecting directly to the New York Internet Exchange, which is the largest internet exchange in the world. Every day buyers and sellers around the world gather in a global electronic marketplace and continuously evaluate the price of an asset in an effort to find the current value at that specific point in time.


Trading venues should disclose their fee structure to all market participants. Some of the stats: The trade settles either at zero or at a pre-determined strike price. Baghdady is a trader, trainer for major institutional Investment companies and the recipient of many awards. Institutional level HFT is rarely conducted over the public internet, due to latency issues and is generally outsourced to an institutional-grade data center. The additional grouping on date and the having clause allow the window only accounts for events that belong to the same day.

The problem of course is that assuming 0. HFT has been around for around 20 years. Although the crash was brief and recovered after AP addressed the tweet, it still illustrates how the misuse of information can make the algorithm act up.

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A discussion is emerging about its benefits and risks, though the assessment is often hampered by difficulties in identifying and quantifying HFT as distinct from other forms of automated trading. With no stop loss, your account is effectively 100% exposed. Algorithmic trading strategies – such as auto hedging, statistical analysis, algorithmic execution, direct market access and high frequency trading – can expose price inconsistencies, which create profitable opportunities for traders. Xrp surges as bitcoin dominance drops, sparking altcoin season hopes, firstly, it will save you serious time. Can you tell us a little bit about your background and experience as a trader? In order to execute a prescribed strategy in a systematic manner, the principal trading entity (the trader) must first conceive and deliver a viable trading strategy that is then rendered as a machine-readable algorithm. Their traders are not based on fundamental research about the company or its growth prospects, but on opportunities to strike.

The use of HFT in equities trading recently came under investigation following the publication of Michael Lewis’ Flash Boys. The practice is a relatively new market activity that lacks a legally binding, universally accepted definition. Seemingly everyone involved in the active trading of financial securities has a viewpoint either for, or against HFT. There can be a significant overlap between a "market maker" and "HFT firm". This makes it difficult for observers to pre-identify market scenarios where HFT will dampen or amplify price fluctuations. High frequency traders rely on extremely low latencies and use high speed connections in conjunction with trading algorithms to exploit inefficiencies created by these exchanges. To explain, imagine that over a month 5% of a stock's trading volume typically occurs in the first hour of trading. What’s it like for FX?

During this flash crash, automated HFT trading tools sold large quantities of stock. If you have enjoyed this post follow me on Twitter and sign-up to my Newsletter for weekly updates on trading strategies and other market insights! There are numerous techniques, but all of them rely on following: